Type Authors Year published Study title Abstract/Objective Method Results Conclusion Additional comment Condition category Condition Population
  YANG Min-li,ZHANG Ren-fa 2012 Effect of Pilates Exercise Therapy on Rehabilitation LDH Patients (RCT)   60 cases of non-acute LDH patients are randomly divided into the control group(n = 30) and the test group(n = 30).The control group are treated with traction,once a day,while the test group are treated with Pilates exercise therapy in addition to traction,which trains the strength,flexibility and coordination of abdominal muscle and lumbar back muscle,once per day and six times a week with the treatment period lasting for 8 weeks. The results show that after 4 or 8 weeks of treatment,the AROM of anteflexion and backward extension of lumbar spine are improved(P0.05),and the scoring of the restriction of the function of RMQ and pain intensity also fall significantly(P0.05). The research conclusion shows that Pilates exercise therapy can significantly improve the AROM of LDH patients' lumbar intervertebral disc,reduce the limitation of their functions and their pains.It is an economical and effective way for LDH patients' rehabilitation. Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health disk herniation (lumbar)  
RCT Kudchadkar GS et al 2019 Comparative effect of mat pilates and egoscue exercises in asymptomatic individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis: A randomized controlled trial Correcting lumbar hyperlordosis, a main cause of back pain, will reduce the stress on the lumbar spine thereby preventing future problems in back and lower limb. Clinical trials are lacking where mat Pilates, Egoscue exercises and lumbar stabilization exercises are compared for their effect on spinal malalignment. Aims: This study aims to compare the effectiveness of Pilates, Egoscue, and lumbar stabilization exercises for reducing hyperlordosis angle in asymptomatic individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis. Settings and Study Design: A randomized controlled trial conducted on volunteer participants from Health Science University of Belagavi. Materials and Methods: Asymptomatic individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis (n = 51) were randomly allocated to Pilates, Egoscue and Lumbar stabilization groups. Outcomes assessed were index of lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and tolerance to exercise performance which was measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. Results: There was significant reduction in the hyperlordosis score (P < 0.001) in the three study groups when compared for pre-and post-intervention scores. However, more reduction was seen in the Pilates and Egoscue groups compared to the lumbar stabilization. Pilates and Egoscue groups were equally effective in Lumbar lordosis angle (P = 0.68) and pelvic tilt (P = 0.51). Participants of Pilates group graded the exercises with superior tolerance to performance (P < 0.0006) than Egoscue and Lumbar stabilization. Conclusion: Pilates group and Egoscue group were equally effective and superior to lumbar stabilization group in correction of hyperlordosis. Further, ease of performance of exercise was rated high for Pilates than the Egoscue exercise. These exercises should be included by the clinicians in preventive or corrective rehabilitation towards spinal posture malalignments.         Bone & Spinal health Hyperlordosis  
  Afroundeh, R., Saidzanozi, R. 2017 Comparison of the Effect of Pilates and Traditional Corrective Exercises on Lumbar Lordosis in Female Students The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Pilates and traditional corrective exercises on lumbar lordosis. Statistical population of the present study was nonathletic female students of Farhangian University in Khoy. Thirty subjects (19-24 years old) with lumbar lordosis were selected and divided into two experimental (Pilates, traditional corrective) and control groups. Experimental groups performed related exercises for 3 weeks, 3 days in a week with duration of 60 min each day. Flexible ruler, Thomas test, leaning forward, squat test and sit-up test was used respectively for measuring lordosis degree, flexibility of quadriceps muscles, flexibility of back muscles, power of hamstring and power of abdominal muscles before and after six weeks training. To compare pre-test and post-test of dependent variables, paired t-test was used. One way ANOVA and Bonferoni test was used to compare three groups. Results showed that in both experimental groups lumbar lordosis was decreased (in both groups p=0.001) and flexibility of quadriceps (traditional corrective group p=0.001; Pilates group p=0.003), flexibility of back muscles (in both groups p=0.001), power of hamstring (in both groups p=0.001) and power of abdominal muscles (in both groups p=0.001) was improved. There was no significant difference between two experimental groups for lumbar lordosis (p=1.000), flexibility of quadriceps(p=0.856), flexibility of back muscles (p=0.786), power of hamstring muscles (p=1.000) and power of abdominal muscles (p=0.579). Therefore for treating lumbar lordosis both Pilates and traditional corrective exercises can be used. Both training methods may treat hyperlordosis with increase in flexibility of back muscles and quadriceps muscles and with increase in power of hamstring and power of abdominal muscles. Pilates equivalent to traditional corrective exercises. Look at for article for PAA Bone & Spinal health Lordosis (lumbar)  
  González-Gálvez, Noelia et al 2017 Effects of exercise programs on kyphosis and lordosis angle: A systematic review and meta-analysis Many authors are interested in the effects that a specific exercise program could have on sagittal spinal curvatures. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different exercise programs on thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordotic angle. This meta-analysis adhered to the PRISMA guideline and it was registered at PROSPERO. Five electronic databases (Pub Med, Cochrane, WOS, PEDro and EBSCO) were searched up to 31 July 2018. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that applied an exercise intervention and measured a kyphosis and/or lordotic angle. Study quality was performance by PEDro score. Risk of bias was assessed using the SIGN 50 checklist for randomized controlled trials. External validity was assessed using the EVAT. Ten randomized controlled trials were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis with a random effect model was performed to infer the pooled estimated standardized mean difference. All studies were RCTs and they involved a total of 284 cases and 255 controls. Seven studies measured kyphosis angle. A large significant effect of the exercise on kyphosis was identified (SMD = -1.400 (95% CI-2.150 a -0.660), p = 0.000). Four studies assessed lordotic angle and moderate but not significant improvement was shown (SMD = -0.530 (95% CI-1.760 a -0.700), p = 0.401). The results suggest that exercise programs may have a positive effect on thoracic kyphosis angle, but no clear effect on lordotic angle. This systematic review suggests that strengthening rather than stretching could be more relevant for kyphosis and both qualities are important for lordosis. It is necessary to conduct more randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of strengthening and/or stretching program on kyphosis and lordotic angle and to establish the type of the exercise that is better for maintaining the sagittal disposition within normal ranges.       Only Pilates inclusion was Junges et al 2017. This study included elsewhere Bone & Spinal health Lordosis (lumbar)  
  gandolfi 2020 The influence of the Pilates method on quality of life and bone remodelling in older women: a controlled study The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Pilates method on quality of life and bone remodeling markers in a group of older women. A longitudinal prospective study with intervention was performed on 40 women aged over 60 years; they were divided into two groups: one submitted to a 50-min Pilates exercise session once a week for 20 weeks (Pilates), and the other was not (Control). Both groups were compared for quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study 36, and for bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and Type 1 collagen C-telopeptide (CTx) bone remodeling markers. The Pilates group presented improvement in the quality of life evaluation scores: physical functioning (67.50 ± 18.88 × 86.25 ± 9.58; p = 0.0232), and physical component summary (65.00 ± 14.39 × 79.70 ± 3.83; p = 0.0220). The Pilates group also presented higher scores than that of Controls after the exercise program: physical functioning (86.25 ± 9.58 × 55.50 ± 20.83, p = 0.0003), physical role (100.00 ± 0.00 × 41.25 ± 46.79, p = 0.0009), emotional role (100.00 ± 0.00 × 48.33 ± 50.12, p = 0.0046), vitality (82.50 ± 14.28 × 60.25 ± 21.43, p = 0.011), physical component summary (79.70 ± 3.83 × 54.90 ± 15.05, p < 0.0001), and emotional component summary (74.10 ± 8.37 × 54.18 ± 22.55, p = 0.0111). No changes were noted in bone remodeling markers [CTx (0.39 ± 0.26 × 0.38 ± 0.22 ng/mL) and BSAP (10.73 ± 2.40 × 11.01 ± 3.56 μg/L)] and did not differ from the Control group both before (CTx: 0.39 ± 0.26 × 0.37 ± 0.17 ng/mL; BSAP: 10.73 ± 2.40 × 10.58 ± 3.49 μg/L; p > 0.05) and after exercise (CTx: 0.38 ± 0.22 × 0.38 ± 0.22 ng/mL; BSAP: 11.01 ± 3.56 × 9.85 ± 3.12 μg/L; p > 0.05). The group of women submitted to Pilates presented improved quality of life but without changes in bone remodeling.   Bone & Spinal health Osteoporosis Older females
  Kuo, Yi-Liang & Tully, Elizabeth & Galea, Mary 2009 Sagittal Spinal Posture After Pilates-Based Exercise in Healthy Older Adults (Longitudinal, repeated-measures study) The aim of this study was to determine changes in sagittal spinal posture in older adults during standing and sitting after a Pilates-based exercise program. Pilates exercise is purported to improve posture, however, few peer-reviewed articles are available to provide scientific support. Most previous studies were conducted in young dancers, and the effect of Pilates exercise on spinal posture in older adults remained unclear. Thirty-four healthy older adults aged over 60 years volunteered for this study. A two-dimensional PEAK Motus motion analysis system was used to measure sagittal spinal angles. Participants were tested on 2 occasions before the exercise program to establish a baseline measure, and undertook a supervised Pilates-based exercise program twice weekly for 10 weeks. Participants were tested on another 2 occasions, immediately after the exercise program, and after a short-term follow-up. Baseline measures in both standing and sitting postures remained unchanged except for the lumbar spine angle in sitting. Immediately after the Pilates-based exercise program, older adults stood with slightly decreased thoracic flexion and sat with slightly increased lumbar extension. No significant differences were found during the follow-up period. The individually designed Pilates-based exercise program was feasible for healthy older adults, and the high attendance rate supports the suitability of the exercise program over a long period. Considering the variability of the baseline measure, small improvement was only observed in the thoracic kyphosis during standing. The long-term effect of Pilates exercise requires further investigation.       Favourable but not overly positive Bone & Spinal health posture  
  BOTELHO, C. I. A 2012 THE INFLUENCE OF THE PILATES METHOD ON CHANGES IN POSTURES OF SURF PARTICIPANTS FROM THE ASSOCIATION OF EXTREME SOUTHERN CATARINIAN SURF (Influência do Método Pilates nas Alterações Posturais dos Praticantes de Surf da Associação do Extremo Sul Catarinense de Surf). (Thesis) Currently, in Brazil, surfing has an expressive number of practitioners, with approximately 2.7 million surfers. Even with such a relevant number of fans, the practice of sport is not always linked to a good physical conditioning, knowledge of the sporting gesture and use of adequate equipment on the part of the surfers, resulting in the emergence of injuries and consequently bodily discomfort and possible postural changes or pathologies in which Physiotherapy establishes an important preventive and therapy. Pilates is a method of physical exercise programmed to condition and relate the body and the mind, aims to correct muscle imbalances, improve the posture and toning the body through basic body control principles: breathing and relaxation, concentration, precision, fluidity, centralization and control and implicit factors of balance, resistance, strengthening, flexibility, coordination and rhythm. The present study had as main objective to analyze the influence of the Pilates method for surfers' postural changes.  The research participation of 3 (three) surfers, aged between 20 (twenty) and 30 (thirty) years, from the Association of the Extreme South Santa Catarina Surf - AESCAS. The data were collected through a Postural Assessment and application of a questionnaire on Surfing Aspects and Daily Life Activities. After the application of the Pilates protocol, a reassessment was carried out where they performed 10 (ten) sessions, lasting approximately 60 (sixty) minutes each. The protocol consisted of 21 (twenty-one) basic exercises, intermediate and advanced, developed on the ground, with the aid of ball and specific equipment of the method.  Through the observation and analysis of the data, it was found that after application of the protocol the 3 (three) surfers members of the sample presented improved posture, increased muscle strength, increased length muscle and improves the ability to practice surfing, due to the benefits that the Method provides.     Bone & Spinal health Posture  
  Cruz-Ferreira A et al. 2013 Does Pilates-Based Exercise Improve Postural Alignment in Adult Women? Women & Health (Randomized Controlled Trial) A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of Pilates-based exercise on postural alignment. Seventy-four adult women (mean age ± SD, 34.9 ± 16.4 years) were randomized to a Pilates-based mat class (n = 40) or a control group (n = 34). Pilates-based exercise participants were taught the Initial Mat of Body Control Pilates for 6 months, twice a week, for 60 minutes per session; the control group received no exercise intervention. Repeated measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of the frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine, shoulder, and pelvis, and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. No differences were found in either group, over time, on frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine and pelvis. The experimental group showed significant improvements in frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis at 6 months. The Pilates-based exercise enhanced some parameters of the postural alignment of women, as measured by frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. The significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the head may imply that 6 months of Pilates-based exercise enhances sagittal alignment of the cervical or thoracic spine.       Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health posture  
  Régis Sinzato, Camila; Taciro, Charles; de Araújo Pio, Carolina; Martins de Toledo , Aline; Rosa Cardoso, Jefferson; Luiz Carregaro, Rodrigo 2013 Effects of 20 sessions of Pilates method on postural alignment and flexibility of young women: pilot study (RCT) The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Pilates method on the postural alignment and joint flexibility in healthy young females. Thirty-three women aged between 18 and 30 years (56.8±8.5 kg, 1.60±0.06 m, and 22.1±2.7 kg/m2 ) having no prior knowledge of Pilates participated in this study.  They were randomly allocated into two groups: control group (without intervention) and Pilates group (PG; mat Pilates, 20 sessions, twice a week). Pre and post-program evaluation procedures were performed by a blinded investigator and were characterized by photogrammetric postural analysis (Postural Assessment Software) and assessment of joint flexibility (Wells sit and reach test). A 2×2 Analysis of Variance was used for repeated measures in order to verify differences between pre- and post-measurements for both control group and PG.  No significant differences were found between the groups, for all variables. The PG presented no differences in postural alignment after the program (p>0.05). However, the PG demonstrated a significant increase of 19.1% in flexibility (p=0.036).  This study showed that a program of mat Pilates produces significant effects on joint flexibility. However, 20 sessions were not sufficient to cause static postural adaptations in healthy young women. Positive for Pilates for joint flexibility. Insufficent sessions for postural change. Bone & Spinal health posture  
RCT Lee HT, et al. (2016) 2016 Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women (non RCT?) [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.       Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health posture  
  Lee S-M, Lee C-H, O'Sullivan D, Jung J-H, Park J-J 2016 Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP).  A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health posture  
RCT navega 2016 Effect of the Mat Pilates method on postural balance and thoracic hyperkyphosis among elderly women: a randomized controlled trial           Bone & Spinal health posture  
  Vincent, M., et al.   2016 Does Pilates Exercise Versus No Pilates Exercise Improve Posture in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in improving posture in healthy adults via a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Descriptions of the study population, intervention, comparison, and outcome measures were tabulated for six included studies. The methodological quality of studies was poor, indicated by quality scores ranging from 2-8 out of 14. Study findings were summarised as between group mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. A qualitative synthesis of data revealed Pilates exercise produced a statistically significant reduction in forward head posture at 6 months in one randomised controlled trial with a low risk of bias. Other studies reported no statistically or clinically significant improvements. Pilates exercise may improve forward head posture in healthy adults. Future randomised controlled trials need to be of high quality, adequately powered, and utilise valid and reliable measures of posture as well as ensure assessor blinding. Supportive of Pilates, Could not find full text Bone & Spinal health posture  
  Atilgan E, et al 2017 Examining the postural awareness and flexibility changes in physical therapy students who took clinical Pilates class This study aimed to evaluate postural awareness and changes in posture and flexibility of students who took Clinical Pilates class as an elective course at the undergraduate level. The study conducted from 2013-2016 included 98 students who took Clinical Pilates class at the Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey. The flexibility levels of the study participants were measured before and after the Clinical Pilates education using finger-to-floor test and modified Schober’s test. Observational posture analysis and postural awareness were recorded using the scale prepared by the researchers. The post-education evaluations showed that postural distortions were fixed, and a significant increase in the postural awareness of the students was observed compared with the pre-education period. The results of both modified Schober’s test and finger-to-floor test, which were used to measure the flexibility levels, showed a statistically significant increase in post-education scores compared with those of the pre-education period. This study showed that the Clinical Pilates course increased postural awareness and flexibility of physical therapy students and fixed postural distortions. Thus, the inclusion of Clinical Pilates class in the undergraduate education is considered to be important. Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health posture  
  de Oliveira LMN, et al 2018 Pilates method in the community: effect on the body posture of elderly women (Portuguese) (non random control trial) This study aimed to verify the effect of the Pilates method (PM) on the body posture of elderly women in a community.  A non-randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 40 elderly women aged between 60 and 80 years, divided equally into Intervention Group (IG) and Control Group (CG). The groups answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and were evaluated, in pre- and post-intervention moments, using biophotogrammetry, through the software SAPO. The IG performed a program of 12 Pilates exercises, twice a week, with duration of 50 minutes, for 12 weeks. A nonparametric statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test with significance value of p<0.05.  The results showed before the intervention the distance between the acromions, epicondyles and styloid process were lower in the CG, in relation to the IG; however, after the intervention, no significant difference was observed between the groups. After the intervention, a statistically significant difference was observed in the variables: distance from the superior (p=0.01) and inferior angle of scapula (p=0.02) of the IG in relation to the CG.  The conclusion was that Pilates promoted a positive effect on some variables of the postural profile of the elderly women, being suitable for community groups for practice of physical activities. positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health posture  
  Magalhães, Átila Barros; Brunes, Alan Rosati; Salles, Tatiana Alface; Sousa, Diego Rayan Teixeira de; Alvarenga, Pedro Henrique de Almeida; Gimenes, Rafaela Okano 2022 Comparação eletromiográfica entre posturas do método pilates executadas em diferentes ambientes: Electromyographic comparison between pilates method postures executed in different environments O método Pilates é um programa de exercícios de fortalecimento e alongamento muscular que compõem um sistema de movimentos que melhoram a postura, o tônus muscular, a flexibilidade e o equilíbrio. A análise eletromiográfica dos músculos envolvidos na execução de algumas dessas posturas pode evidenciar como o sistema muscular se comporta durante essa atividade quando realizada em diferentes ambientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar por meio da eletromiografia de superfície (EMGS) a ativação muscular do paravertebral lombar e do tríceps braquial durante as posturas do Pilates® em ambiente terrestre e aquático e comparar os valores RMS obtidos entre esses ambientes. Para tanto, foram selecionados aleatoriamente 30 estudantes universitários voluntários de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos (média 22.36 ± 1.95) e quantificada a atividade elétrica dos dois músculos supracitados por meio da EMGS durante a execução em solo e em água das seguintes posturas: Leg Pull Back (LPB), Leg Pull Back Variação (LPBV), Leg Pull Front (LPF) e Leg Pull Front Variação (LPFV). Para toda a amostra, foi visto que no Canal F existiu diferença significativa entre os dois ambientes para as posturas LPB, LPBV e LPFV. Em todas as posturas, as executadas em solo obtiveram valores RMS maiores do que em água. Concluiu-se, portanto que houve diferença significante entre a ativação muscular nos dois ambientes, onde foi predominante o maior valor RMS nos exercícios terrestres em todas as posturas realizadas.         Bone & Spinal health Posture  
  Blum CL 2002 Chiropractic and Pilates therapy for the treatment of adult scoliosis Objective: To describe the use of Pilates therapy and sacro-occipital technique in the management of a 39-year-old woman with scoliosis who had undergone spinal fusion many years earlier. Clinical features: The patient had progressive severe low back pain that had worsened over the years after her surgery and had prevented her from activities such as carrying her son or equipment necessary for her job as a photographer. The patient was provided a series of Pilates exercises used to overcome her chronic habituation and muscle weakness. Conclusion: The addition of Pilates therapy can be useful to care for patients with chronic low back pain and deconditioning. Although this therapy went on for some time, she did begin to stabilize and increase physical activity.  At present, she is no longer limited in her physical activity, although she still exhibits some symptoms from her scoliosis.  Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health scoliosis  
RCT Alves de Araújo ME, Silva EBd, Vieira PC, Cader SA, Mello DBd, Dantas EHM 2010 Redução da dor crônica associada à escoliose não estrutural, em universitárias submetidas ao método Pilates. Reduction of the chronic pain associated to the scoliosis non structural, in university students submitted to the Pilates method  couldn't find this study & not listed in references. ROB not great. Check author citation         Bone & Spinal health scoliosis  
  Alves de Araújo ME, Bezerra E, Braga D, Cader SA, Shiguemi A, Dantas EH 2012 The effectiveness of the Pilates method: reducing the degree of non-structural scoliosis, and improving flexibility and pain in female college students. To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates with regard to the degree of scoliosis, flexibility and pain. The study included 31 female students divided into two groups: a control group (CG = 11), which had no therapeutic intervention, and an experimental group (EG = 20), which underwent Pilates-based therapy. We used radiological goniometry measurements to assess the degree of scoliosis, standard goniometry measurements to determine the degree of flexibility and the scale of perceived pain using the Borg CR 10 to quantify the level of pain. The independent t test of the Cobb angle (t = - 2.317, p = 0.028), range of motion of trunk flexion (t = 3.088, p = 0.004) and pain (t = -2.478, p = 0.019) showed significant differences between the groups, with best values in the Pilates group. The dependent t test detected a significant decrease in the Cobb angle (Δ% = 38%, t = 6.115, p = 0.0001), a significant increase in trunk flexion (Δ% = 80%, t = -7.977, p = 0.0001) and a significant reduction in pain (Δ% = 60%, t = 7.102, p = 0.0001) in the EG. No significant difference in Cobb angle (t = 0.430, p = 0.676), trunk flexion, (t = 0.938p = 0.371) or pain (t = 0.896, p = 0.391) was found for the CG. The Pilates group was better than control group. The Pilates method showed a reduction in the degree of non-structural scoliosis, increased flexibility and decreased pain. Positive for Pilates. has this been mixed up with alves de araujo? Year wrong? Bone & Spinal health Scoliosis  
  Mazzarino M; Kerr D; Wajswelner H; Morris ME 2015 Pilates Method for Women's Health: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. To critically analyze the benefits of Pilates on health outcomes in women. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Databases were searched using the terms Pilates and Pilates method. Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they comprised female participants with a health condition and a health outcome was measured, Pilates needed to be administered, and the article was published in English in a peer-reviewed journal from 1980 to July 2014. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to potential studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. A best-evidence grading system was used to determine the strength of the evidence. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. PEDro scale values ranged from 3 to 7 (mean 4.5; median 4.0), indicating a relatively low quality overall. The most frequent health outcomes investigated were pain (n = 4), quality of life (n = 4), and lower extremity endurance (n = 2), with mixed results. Emerging evidence was found for reducing pain and improving quality of life and lower extremity endurance. With the application of BES, strong evidence was found for Pilates in improving health outcomes for pain for scoliosis. Reduction in pain was demonstrated in 1 high-quality RCT investigating  nonstructural scoliosis.  Limited evidence was found for improving  range of motion in trunk flexion. There is a paucity of evidence on Pilates for improving women's health during pregnancy or for conditions including breast cancer, obesity, or low back pain. Further high-quality RCTs are warranted to determine the effectiveness of Pilates for improving women's health outcomes. Some positives Bone & Spinal health scoliosis Women
RCT Kim G, Hwangbo P-N 2016 Effects of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and weight distribution of patients with scoliosis The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and body weight distribution of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects] Twenty-four scoliosis patients with a Cobb angle of ≥20° were divided into the Schroth exercise group (SEG, n = 12) and the Pilates exercise group (PEG, n = 12). [Methods] The SEG and PEG performed Schroth and Pilates exercises, respectively, three times a week for 12 weeks. The Cobb angle was measured in the standing position with a radiography apparatus, and weight load was measured with Gait View Pro 1.0. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant changes in the Cobb angle. For weight distribution, the SEG showed significant differences in the total weight between the concave and convex sides, but the PEG did not show significant differences. Furthermore, in the intragroup comparison, the SEG showed significant differences in the changes in the Cobb angle and weight distribution compared with the PEG. [Conclusion] Both Schroth and Pilates exercises were effective in changing the Cobb angle and weight distribution of scoliosis patients; however, the intergroup comparison showed that the Schroth exercise was more effective than the Pilates exercise.       Pilates not quite as good as Schroth Bone & Spinal health scoliosis  
  Ghorayeb, Joe; Ayoub, Hiba; Darwish, Rashid; Palombo, Pier-Paul 2022 The Effect of Schroth Exercises on Cobb Angle, Quality of Life, and Functional Capacity in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials Background: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of spinal curve severity affecting individuals 10 to 18 years of age. Surgery is generally reserved for curves measuring >50°, whereas bracing and scoliosis-specific exercises are recommended for Cobb angles ranging from 10° to 45° in order to prevent curve progression. As the utility of Schroth exercises has emerged as a popular option among practising clinicians, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the effect of Schroth exercises on Cobb angle progression, quality of life (QOL) and functional capacity in individuals with AIS. Methods: Three databases, MEDLINE, PEDro, and CINAHL were systematically searched for English-language randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of Schroth exercises on individuals with AIS with Cobb angles ≥ 10°. The outcomes of interest were the effect of Schroth exercises on Cobb angle, QOL and functional capacity when compared to standard nonoperative care. Results: Five RCTs were appraised. Two studies showed no meaningful change in Cobb angle that may be accounted for outside of measurement error alone. One study showed some change beyond measurement error, but there was no follow-up beyond 12 weeks, and another showed some change at 26 weeks that may be attributable to the intervention (p=0.001). Only one study found significant improvements in QOL at 10 weeks (p<0.001). Of the two studies assessing functional ability, one study found no significant difference at 6 months follow-up (p=0.89), whereas the other study found significant improvement in 6MWT at 6 months (p=0.001). Conclusion: Insufficient evidence exists to suggest that engaging in Schroth exercises results in halting curve progression or regression of Cobb angle in AIS patients in the long-term. Improvement in quality of life and functional capacity may be realized in the short-term, though maintenance of such effects remains to be elucidated. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer intervention and follow-up periods are necessary to determine the long-term effect of Schroth exercises on Cobb angle, QOL and functional capacity in individuals with AIS.         Bone & Spinal health scoliosis  
  Kazemi, Khadijeh; Rahmani, Nahid; Rahimi, Fatemeh; Ravanbakhsh, Majid 2020 The association between spinal column deformity and breathing function: A systematic review         Couldn't access article in JBMT Bone & Spinal health scoliosis?  
  Halis F, et al 2016 Pilates for Better Sex: Changes in Sexual Functioning in Healthy Turkish Women After Pilates Exercise (Pilot study) Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p <.0001). This is the first prospective study that quantifies the improvement in sexual function of healthy women after a 12-week Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field. Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health Sexual Functioning  
RCT Altan L, Korkmaz N, Dizdar M and Yurtkuran M.  2012 Effect of Pilates training on people with ankylosing spondylitis (RCT) The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Pilates on pain, functional status, and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. (RCT) The study was performed as a randomized, prospective, controlled, and single-blind trial. Fifty-five participants (30 men, 25 women) who were under a regular follow-up protocol in our Rheumatology Clinic with the diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York criteria were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups: in group I, Pilates exercise program of 1 h was given by a certified trainer to 30 participants 3 times a week for 12 weeks, and in group II, designed as the control group, 25 participants continued previous standard treatment programs. In groups, pre-(week 0) and post treatment (week 12 and week 24) evaluation was performed by one of the authors who was blind to the group allocation. Primary outcome measure was functional capacity. Evaluation was done using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Exploratory outcome measures were Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), Chest expansion, and ankylosing spondylitis quality of life (ASQOL) questionnaire In group I (Pilates), BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index) showed significant improvement at week 12 (P = 0.031) and week 24 (P = 0.007). In group II (non-Pilates), this parameter was not found to have significantly changed at week 12 and week 24. Comparison of the groups showed significantly superior results for group I at week 24 (P = 0.023).  We suggest Pilates exercises as an effective and safe method to improve physical capacity in AS patients. Our study is the first clinical study designed to investigate the role of Pilates method in AS treatment. We believe that further research with more participants and longer follow-up periods could help assess the therapeutic value of this popular physical exercise method in AS. High quality, positive for Pilates, Included in 5 SR's (Chang, Pécourneau, Byrnes, Cruz, Giannotti) Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Berea S, Ancuta C, Miu S, Chirieac R 2012 The Pilates method in ankylosing spondylitis (RCT) The study aims to assess and compare the efficiency of two different kinetic programs, in order to improve the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Our study included two samples (control and cases) of 30 patients admitted for AS in the Clinic of Rheumatology and Medical Rehabilitation Iasi, in 2011. Certain parameters such as: age, body mass index, disease evolution, Schober test, index-ground test, inspiratory-expiratory index, BASDAI activity index, BASFI functional index, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), pain, morning stiffness, inflammatory tests, and general state of health were assessed for every patient. The quality of life index calculated using the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) was clearly improved in the Pilates group, setting a context with statistical signifi cance, thereby certifying the favorable effect of introducing the method in the kinetic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. The Pilates method used in the rehabilitation treatment of patients with AS could have a favorable effect on indices regarding mobility, as well as patients perception about their disease.   Patients in the early stages of the disease have a favorable response to the Pilates method, which seems to have a positive effect on the quality of life, even after a relatively short duration of treatment. While the method is easy to learn and adaptable to individual variations, it can be easily implemented in the rehabilitation treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. It remains to evaluate a long-term effect of the method and application to patients in advanced stages of disease The results are promising and allow expansion to a more extensive study. However, given that the obtained results align with the few similar studies from the literature, we think that it is safe to say that the Pilates method should be considered as a complementary, if not main kinetic therapy method, due to its complexity and its possibility to adapt to each particular patient. It helps the patient to be in touch with his disease, to understand and accept it and to cope better with the chronic pain  Positive for Pilates, Included in 1 SR (Cruz) Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Giannotti E, Trainito S, Arioli G, Rucco V, Masiero S 2014 Effects of physical therapy for the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis in the biological era. (SR) Exercise is considered a fundamental tool for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), in combination with pharmacological therapy that with the advent of biological therapy has improved dramatically the control of signs and symptoms of this challenging disease. Current evidence shows that a specific exercise protocol has not been validated yet. The purpose of this review is to update the most recent evidence (July 2010-November 2013) about physiotherapy in AS, analyzing the possible role and synergistic interactions between exercise and biological drugs. From 117 studies initially considered, only 15 were included in the review.  The results support a multimodal approach, including educational sessions, conducted in a group setting, supervised by a physiotherapist and followed by a maintaining home-based regimen.  Spa exercise and McKenzie, Heckscher, and Pilates methods seem promising in AS rehabilitation, but their effectiveness should be further investigated in future randomized controlled trials (RCTs).  Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Rosu MO, Topa I, Chirieac R, Ancuta C 2014 Effects of Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher training on disease activity, spinal motility and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial The optimal management of ankylosis spondylitis (AS) involves a combination of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment aiming to maximize health-related quality of life. The primary objective of our study was to demonstrate the benefits of an original multimodal exercise program combining Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher techniques on pulmonary function in patients with AS, while secondary objectives were to demonstrate the benefits of the same program on function and disease activity.  This is a randomized controlled study on ninety-six consecutive patients with AS (axial disease subset), assigned on a 1:1 rationale into two groups based on their participation in the Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher (group I) or in the classical kinetic program (group  II). The exercise program consisted of 50-min sessions performed 3 times weekly for 48 weeks. Standard assessments were done at week 0 and 48 and included pain, modified Schober test (mST) and finger-floor distance (FFD), chest expansion (CE) and vital capacity (VC), as well as disease activity Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), functional Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and metrology index Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI).  Groups were comparable at baseline; we demonstrated significant improvement between baseline and after 48 weeks of regular kinetic training for all AS-related parameters in both groups. However, significant improvement was found in pain, lumbar spine motility (mST, FFD), BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI in AS performing the specific multimodal exercise program at the end of study (p = 0.001). Although there were significant improvements in CE in both groups as compared to baseline (group I, p = 0.001; group II, p = 0.002), this parameter increased significantly only in group I (p = 0.001). VC measurements were not significantly changed at the end of the study (group I, p = 0.127; group II, p = 0.997), but we found significant differences within groups (p = 0.011).  A multimodal training combining Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher exercises performed regularly should be included in the routine management of patients with AS for better control of function, disease activity and pulmonary function. Confounding of therapies - could not separate out effects of Pilates Bone & Spinal health Spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Chang W-D, Tsou Y-A, Lee C-L 2016 Comparison between specific exercises and physical therapy for managing patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Engaging in specific exercises and physical therapy are two strategies for managing ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the differences between the outcomes of these strategies. Data from January 2005 to July 2014 was retrieved from the Medline, PubMed, AMED, Embase, and CINAHL databases. Randomized controlled trials were conducted, and the outcomes of these interventions were compared using a meta-analysis. The outcome assessments were classified into the domains of impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions for AS according to the International Classification of Functioning model. Eight articles were included in the analysis, and four specific exercises, namely Pilates, aerobic and aquatic exercises, and the Global Postural Reeducation method, were compared with physical therapy. The meta-analysis results revealed that some outcomes of chest expansion and pulmonary function favored the specific exercises. The outcomes of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index were favored physical therapy. Both interventions exhibited low to moderate effects on impairment, activity limitations, and participation restriction among the patients with AS. Different outcomes for specific exercises and physical therapy were found; a combination of both interventions is suggested as a clinical program for patients with AS. Positive for exercise Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing) -
  Cruz JC, Liberali R, Cruz TM, Netto MI 2016 The Pilates method in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review This study aimed to identify the effects of the Pilates Method in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders through a systematic review. An active search was performed in the PubMed, PEDro, Scielo and Bireme databases. A total of 24 studies were pre-selected and their methodological quality was evaluated based on the PEDro scale. Of these, 14 fulfilled the selection criteria. The studies analyzed indicate that Pilates can be effective both for the treatment of conditions such as scoliosis, back pain, ankylosing spondylitis and breast cancer, and for preventing injuries in adults, elderly people and athletes. The high methodological variability requires that these studies be viewed with caution. It indicates the need for the performance of new studies with high methodological quality and standardization of evaluation instruments. Positive for PIlates Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
delphi survey Millner JR, Barron JS, Beinke KM, Butterworth RH, Chasle BE, Dutton LJ, Lewington MA, Lim EG, Morley TB, O'Reilly JE, Pickering KA, Winzenberg T, Zochling J. Review. 2016 Exercise for ankylosing spondylitis: An evidence-based consensus statement. (Delphi) Despite Level 1b evidence and international consensus that exercise is beneficial in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), there is a paucity of detailed information to guide exercise prescription, including the type and dosage of exercise required for the most benefit. This collaborative project, combining evidence with clinical expertise, was established to develop practical recommendations to guide sustainable exercise prescription for individuals with AS. Using a modified Delphi technique, 10 clinical questions were generated and a systematic literature review was conducted for each. Draft recommendations were developed at a 2-day meeting, based on the integration of evidence summaries and expert opinion. Feedback was obtained from patient and health professional groups prior to finalisation. Stretching, strengthening, cardiopulmonary and functional fitness are important components to include in a balanced exercise programme (EBR grade A): There is preliminary evidence for (modified) Pilates The recommendations provide an up-to-date, evidence-based approach to the full range of issues related to the use of exercise in AS, as well as identifying evidence gaps for further research. Most importantly, this includes investigation of aspects of exercise programme design required to produce the largest effect, long-term adherence with exercise programs and the specific exercise requirements of sub-groups of people with AS. Widespread dissemination and implementation of the guidelines will be required to optimise exercise outcomes.   Bone & Spinal health Spondylitis (ankylosing) -
  Martinez-Pubil JA, Acebal Gonzalez A, Vega Alvarez JA 2017 Pilates-based physiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis patients [Spanish](RCT) The Pilates method is considered one of the most popular exercise programmes in clinical practice. This study aimed to assess the impact of the Pilates method in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A clinical trial was conducted at the Central University Hospital of Asturias (HUCA) in 49 patients with AS, randomly selected and divided into two groups. The intervention group (IG, n = 26) participated in a Pilates method protocol of 90-min sessions on alternate days for 5 weeks under the supervision of a physiotherapist. At the end of the 5-week period, the IG continued to perform the exercises at home for 3 months. A control group (CG, n = 23) performed conventional exercises at home during the same period. The following variables were analysed: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis index (BASMI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). BASMI scores significantly increased in the CG (P< .05) and decreased in the short- and medium-term in the IG (P= .038,P= .020). At the end of the study, significant differences were found in the BASFI index between the CG and the IG (P= .028). The BASDAI showed no differences between the CG and the IG (P> .05), but significant intragroup differences were found in the IG before and after the Pilates intervention (P= .002), while no intragroup differences were found in the CG (P= .113). Patients undergoing a supervised Pilates-based physiotherapy programme showed improved spinal mobility and functional capacity compared with patients who carried out conventional exercise at home. Demonstrated superiority of Pilates over other exercise, conducted by physios. OK to include? Couldn't find full text to check qualifications. Study conducted in Spain Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing) -
  Martinez-Pubil JA, Acebal-Gonzalez A, Fernandez Alvarez R, Vega-Alvarez JA 2017 Pilates physiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis patients: impact on lung function [Spanish] (RCT) To evaluate the impact of physiotherapy, based on the Pilates Method, on the lung function of patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). A randomised clinical trial (RCT) was performed with 49 patients diagnosed with AS according to the modified New York criteria. Two groups were randomly established. Therapeutic Pilates-based exercise was performed by 26 patients for 17 weeks, in 90 minute sessions on alternative days, supervised by a physiotherapist. The control group (23 patients) used a conventional exercise program at home. The variables analysed were: rib cage expansion, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and the FEV1/FVC ratio. No significant differences were found in the values of rib cage expansion between control and experimental groups (P=.686), while there were differences before and after intervention in the experimental group (P=.780). The values of spirometry were similar in both control and experimental groups. No-significant increase in FVC was observed in the experimental group (P=.122). The impact of Pilates-based exercises on spirometry values and rib cage expansion is limited, although there was a tendency to improve FVC after Pilates exercises. These types of exercise protocols should be considered, for their clinical application, in specific respiratory physiotherapy. Confusing. Results & conclusion don’t match up. Couldn't find full text Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing) -
  Byrnes K; Wu PJ; Whillier S, J 2018 Is Pilates an effective rehabilitation tool? A systematic review. Pilates is a system of exercise focusing upon controlled movement, stretching and breathing. Pilates is popular today not only for physical fitness but also for rehabilitation programs. This paper is a review of the literature on the effectiveness of Pilates as a rehabilitation tool in a wide range of conditions in an adult population. A systematic literature review was carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic databases were searched for cohort studies or randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The final RCTs were assessed using the PEDro and CONSORT 2010 checklists. Altan et al. (2012) compared Pilates to a control group who continued with normal routine. The study found that Pilates resulted in significant improvement in the BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index) at week 12 (P = 0.031) and week 24 (P = 0.007) compared to the control. Roşu et al. (2014)) combined three programmes: Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher which showed significant improvement (P = 0.001) in all outcome measures for both groups. (NB Results in bold specific to condition)) The majority of the clinical trials in the last five years into the use of Pilates as a rehabilitation tool have found it to be effective in achieving desired outcomes, particularly in the area of reducing pain and disability. It indicates the need for further research in these many areas, and especially into the benefits of particular Pilates exercises in the rehabilitation of specific conditions. Positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Oksuz S, Unal E, Arin G. . Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2018;77 (Supplement 2):1852. 2018 The effects of different exercise protocols on functional status and aerobic capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis       To compare the effects of aerobic training versus aerobic training combined with clinical Pilates exercises (CPE) on the functional and psychosocial status of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Twenty-eight patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (n = 14) performed both aerobic training and CPE, whereas group 2 (n = 14) performed aerobic training alone. Functional status of the patients was assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Mobility Index (BASMI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), back scratch test (BST), single leg stance test, functional reach test, a dynamometer, chair sit and stand test, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and the psychosocial status of the patients was assessed using the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) questionnaire, the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK). Both training programs were conducted for 8 weeks, and then, the assessments were repeated. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the BASMI (p = .001), BASDAI (p = .001), BASFI (p = .002), BST (right, p = .05; left, p = .025), functional reach test (p = .013), back muscle strength (p = .033), 6MWT (p = .011), ASQoL (p < .001), MAF (p = .01), and PSQI (p = .013) scores in group 1. A significant difference was observed in the BASDAI (p = .028), chair sit and stand test (p = .022), 6MWT (p = .04), and ASQoL (p = .04) scores in group 2. CPE in addition to aerobic training was more effective in improving the functional and psychosocial status of the patients with AS. awaiting classification? Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Pécourneau V; Degboé Y; Barnetche T; Cantagrel A; Constantin A; Ruyssen-Witrand A 2018 Effectiveness of Exercise Programs in Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. To assess the effectiveness of exercise programs on disease activity and function in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) by a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DATA SOURCES: Medline via PubMed and Cochrane Library. STUDY SELECTION: Reports of RCTs examining the effectiveness of exercise programs for AS published up to May 2017. DATA EXTRACTION: Outcomes were evolution of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) after the completion of exercise programs. Modalities of exercise were compared and the use of biologic therapy was reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: After screening 190 abstracts, we selected 26 reports for detailed evaluation and finally investigated 8 trials that assessed a home-based exercise program (2/8), swimming (1/8), Pilates training (1/8) or supervised exercises (4/8), for 331 AS patients. All trials except one showed a decrease in BASDAI and BASFI, with exercise. The weighted mean difference (95% confidence interval) was -0.90 (-1.52 to -0.27) (I2 = 69%, p = 0.005) for the BASDAI and -0.72 (-1.03 to -0.40) (I2 = 0%, p < 0.00001) for the BASFI in favor of exercise programs. Despite the small number of patients and the heterogeneity of exercise programs in the RCTs included in this meta-analysis, its results support the potential of exercise programs to improve disease activity and body function in AS. Positive for exercise Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing) -
  Rodriguez-Lopez ES, et al 2019 One Year of Pilates Training for Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Pilot Study. This prospective long-term study examines the effects of a Pilates training intervention on spinal mobility, disease activity, and functional capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The study design was quasi experimental and single blind. 11 subjects were recruited among patients undergoing followup of AS diagnosed according to modified New York criteria at the rheumatology clinic. Over a 12-month period, 11 patients completed a training program consisting of two sessions per week of selected Pilates exercises. There was no control group. The primary outcome variable was functional capacity measured using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) questionnaire. Exploratory outcome measures were Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion and fingertip-to-floor (FTF) test. Baseline and follow-up examinations were performed immediately before the intervention and during the course of treatment at 4, 8, and 12 months. After the exercise intervention, improvements were observed in BASFI (77.51%), BASDAI (64.39%) and BASMI (58.95%) scores, FTF distance (71.92%), and chest expansion (88.74%). These findings suggest that Pilates training could be useful in AS patients and provide direction for larger controlled trials designed to determine the therapeutic benefits of Pilates in the management of these patients. PIlot study, positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Hu, Xinmiao; Chen, Jialing; Tang, Wenjuan; Chen, Wenjian; Sang, Yan; Jia, Lina 2020 Effects of exercise programmes on pain, disease activity and function in ankylosing spondylitis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Background To evaluate the effects of exercise programmes on pain, function and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Materials and methods We searched PubMed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang from inception to February 2020. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercises with nonexercise interventions in AS patients were applied. Studies that assessed the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were included. Outcomes of home-based exercise intervention were also reported independently. Results Ten studies met the inclusion criteria in all, including 534 patients (278 exercise, 256 control). Compared with the nonexercise group, exercise group had statistically significant improvements in pain (weighted mean difference [WMD]: −1.02 [95% CI: −1.50 to −0.55]) (I2: 31%, P <.0001), BASDAI (WMD: −0.85 [95% CI: −1.09 to −0.61]) (I2: 20%, P <.00001), and BASFI (WMD: −0.66 [95% CI: −0.95 to −0.38]) (I2: 0%, P <.00001), but not in CRP and ESR. What's more, home-based exercise programmes had positive impacts on BASFI, BASDAI and pain. Conclusions For patients with AS, exercise programmes improve pain, function and disease activity. To confirm the results, more well-designed randomized controlled trials with large number of patients are required.         Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Bağlan Yentür, Songül et al 2022 The effects of Pilates training on respiratory muscle strength in patients with ankylosing spondylitis Reduction in flexibility and mobility are important factors that lead to impairments in quality of life, reduction of exercise tolerance, a         Bone & Spinal health spondylitis (ankylosing)  
  Liu, Shao-Hsien; Morais, Stephen A.; Lapane, Kate L.; Kay, Jonathan 2020 Physical activity and attitudes and perceptions towards physical activity in patients with spondyloarthritis: A systematic review Objective To review systematically and synthesize qualitatively the literature about physical activity and perceptions and attitudes towards physical activity/exercise among patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus and reference lists were searched for quantitative and qualitative studies reporting on beliefs towards exercise in patients with SpA. Searches were limited to studies published from January 2000 through December 2018. The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Systematic searches identified 128 publications which underwent a title, abstract, or full-text review. Studies were excluded if articles were not in English or did not include original data. We summarized the methodologic quality using modified criteria for quantitative and qualitative studies. Results Eight quantitative and three qualitative studies met eligibility criteria, with variable study quality. Based on self-reported data, 50% to 68% of patients with SpA met physical activity recommendations with walking, swimming/pool exercise, and cycling the most common forms reported. Intrinsic factors such as motivation and improvement in symptoms and health were commonly reported as facilitators associated with physical activity/exercise. Barriers included lack of time, fatigue, and symptoms such as pain. Conclusion One third to one half of patients with SpA do not meet physical activity recommendations. Given the potential for regular physical activity to reduce symptom burden in this patient population and the recommendation for regular physical activity as part of the management of these patients, more rigorous studies of physical activity behaviors and attitudes will be useful to inform interventions and promote exercise among individuals with SpA.         Bone & Spinal health Spondyloarthritis  
  campos de Oliveira L, et al. 2016 Effects of the Pilates method on variables related to functionality of a patient with traumatic spondylolisthesis at L4-L5: A case study. Traumatic spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 is a rare complication in the spine, which impairs variables related to the functionality of the person affected. To verify the effects of the Pilates method on strength and muscular resistance, flexibility, postural balance and level of pain in a patient with traumatic spondylolisthesis at L4-L5. The following evaluations were performed pre and post-intervention: resistance of the flexor and extensor muscles of the trunk; isokinetic peak torque of the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee; hip and torso flexibility; static postural balance; and the visual analog scale of pain. The treatment consisted of three weekly sessions of Pilates, performed over 12 weeks. There was improvement in all the tests, except for one variable related to postural balance. The Pilates method was effective for improving muscle resistance and strength, flexibility, postural balance and pain, in a patient with traumatic spondylolisthesis at L4-L5. Case study, positive for Pilates Bone & Spinal health spondylolisthesis -
email,email Brayjani 2019 The Effect of Pilates Exercises on Muscular Endurance of the Central Part of Body and the Range of Motion of Lumbar Spine in Patients with Spondylolysis Spondylolysis, is an anatomical disorder in posterior vertebrae part in area between pedicle and the lamina in between joint region Pars InterArticularis which affects the patient function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of eight weeks Pilates exercise on muscular endurance of the central part of the body and the range of motion of lumber spine in patients with spondylolysis. Methods: Fourteen women with spondylolysis by spine's neuropsychologist diagnosis were selected, and were randomly divided into two equal groups of experimental (mean ± SD: 38.8±8.5 years, height 161.2 ± 6.9 cm, weight 69 ± 8.7 kg), and control (mean ± SD: 38.4±8.7 years, height 165 ± 5.2 cm, weight of 65.8± 6.8 kg). Experimental group performed selected Pilates exercise for eight weeks, three sessions in a week, and each session 60 minutes, , but during these time control group did not participate in any treatment activity and performed normal daily activities. Muscle endurance (McGill test) and range of motion lumbar spine (Modified-Modified Schober's Technique) were evaluated before and after eight weeks training. For data analysis, analysis of variance model with duplicate size (p0.05). In total, there were significant differences between experimental and control groups (p0.05). In total, there were significant differences between experimental and control groups (p       available in English? Bone & Spinal health spondylolysis